Summaries of Defra reports and surveys measuring land contamination. Contaminated land reports 4 April Research and analysis Indicators for land contamination 1 August Research and analysis. Related content Contaminated land statutory guidance Managing and reducing land contamination: guiding principles GPLC Contaminated land reports Indicators for land contamination MCERTS: performance standard for laboratories undertaking chemical testing of soil. Explore the topic Chemicals Environmental risk management Land management.
Is this page useful? Maybe Yes this page is useful No this page is not useful Is there anything wrong with this page? Thank you for your feedback. What were you doing? What went wrong? Mathematical exposure models may also be used to explore hypothetical situations of exposure. Especially when determining the exposure of a population rather than individuals, indirect methods can often make use of relevant statistics about the activities that can lead to an exposure. These statistics are called exposure factors. They are generally drawn from the scientific literature or governmental statistics.
For example, they may report informations such as amount of different food eaten by specific populations, divided by location or age, breathing rates, time spent for different modes of commuting, showering or vacuuming, as well as information on types of residences. Such information can be combined with contaminant concentrations from ad-hoc studies or monitoring network to produce estimates of the exposure in the population of interest.
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These are especially useful in establishing protective standards. Exposure factor values can be used to obtain a range of exposure estimates such as average , high-end and bounding estimates. For example, to calculate the lifetime average daily dose one would use the equation below:. All of the variables in the above equation, with the exception of contaminant concentration, are considered exposure factors. Each of the exposure factors involves humans, either in terms of their characteristics e. These characteristics and behaviors can carry a great deal of variability and uncertainty.
In the case of lifetime average daily dose, variability pertains to the distribution and range of LADDs amongst individuals in the population. The uncertainty, on the other hand, refers to exposure analyst's lack of knowledge of the standard deviation, mean, and general shape when dealing with calculating LADD. The U. Environmental Protection Agency 's Exposure Factors Handbook  provides solutions when confronting variability and reducing uncertainty. The general points are summarized below:. Occupational exposure limits are based on available toxicology and epidemiology data to protect nearly all workers over a working lifetime.
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The exposure assessment is initiated by selecting the appropriate exposure limit averaging time and "decision statistic" for the agent. For retrospective exposure assessments performed in occupational environments, the "decision statistic" is typically a central tendency such as the arithmetic mean or geometric mean or median for each worker or group of workers. Methods for performing occupational exposure assessments can be found in "A Strategy for Assessing and Managing Occupational Exposures".
Exposure assessment is a continuous process that is updated as new information and data becomes available. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A branch of environmental science and occupational hygiene.
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Play media. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment and Control. Academic Press. Exposure Factors Handbook". Environmental Protection Agency. Elsevier Academic Press. Exposure Analysis. CRC Press. Bibcode : EnST In Krieger, Robert ed.
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ECsafeSEAFOOD - Priority environmental contaminants in seafood: safety assessment, impact and public perception Seafood has been recognized as a high quality, healthy and safe food item. WP5 will carry out the toxicological characterization of contaminated seafood in realistic conditions and will use alternative toxicological methods to provide tools for the risk assessment WP3.
WP6 will assess the links between the level of contaminants in the environment and that in seafood through controlled trials and case-study species, taking into account the effect of climate changes.
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